# germanium other names

He suggested therefore the name ekasilicon (symbol Es). [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. Other names germanium(II) selenide. [35] Other oxidation states are rare: +3 is found in compounds such as Ge2Cl6, and +3 and +1 are found on the surface of oxides,[36] or negative oxidation states in germanides, such as −4 in Mg2Ge. The first metallic material discovered (in 2005) to become a superconductor in the presence of an extremely strong electromagnetic field was an alloy of germanium, uranium, and rhodium.[33]. Other names germanium(II) selenide. [30] The monoxide, germanous oxide, can be obtained by the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal. The element is brittle rather than ductile; the atoms in its crystals are arranged as are the carbon atoms in diamond. [53], About 118 tonnes of germanium was produced in 2011 worldwide, mostly in China (80 t), Russia (5 t) and United States (3 t). This is primarily because it usually occurs only as a trace element in ores and carbonaceous materials, and the various industrial and electronic applications involve very small quantities that are not likely to be ingested. [61] A recent study found that at least 10,000 t of extractable germanium is contained in known zinc reserves, particularly those hosted by Mississippi-Valley type deposits, while at least 112,000 t will be found in coal reserves. [88], U.S. Food and Drug Administration research has concluded that inorganic germanium, when used as a nutritional supplement, "presents potential human health hazard". It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. Extremely pure germanium crystals are obtained through a technique termed as zone refining which produces semiconductor grade germanium with an impurity of 1 in 1010. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores. [8] The physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. [note 1] The chemist Clemens Winkler analyzed this new mineral, which proved to be a combination of silver, sulfur, and a new element. eV [1] [2]History. Germanium arsenide . [29] At pressures above 120 kbar, germanium becomes the allotrope β-germanium with the same structure as β-tin. Plasma and urine germanium concentrations in these individuals, several of whom died, were several orders of magnitude greater than endogenous levels. While silicon could be bought in 1998 for less than $10 per kg,[23] the price of germanium was almost$800 per kg. This page was last changed on 5 May 2020, at 04:13. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Although germanium was not discovered until 1886 by Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, its existence, properties, and position in the periodic system had been predicted in 1871 by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, who called the hypothetical element ekasilicon. The two most important compounds of germanium are the dioxide (GeO2) and the tetrachloride (GeCl4). [76] Other uses in electronics include phosphors in fluorescent lamps[31] and solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [70], Because germanium is transparent in the infrared wavelengths, it is an important infrared optical material that can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride After neutralization, only the zinc stays in solution while germanium and other metals precipitate. In these materials, charges created by radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.…. In sterling silver alloys, for instance, it reduces firescale, increases tarnish resistance, and improves precipitation hardening. 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On the other hand, germanium has a small band gap energy (E gap = 0.67 eV), which requires to operate the detector at cryogenic temperatures. Comprehensive data on the chemical element Germanium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Germanium. Germanium forms stable oxidation states of +2 and +4, the compounds of the latter being more stable and numerous. Certain present-day plants are known to concentrate germanium. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Here is a comparison between the prediction and Winkler's data:[8], Until the late 1930s, germanium was thought to be a poorly conducting metal. Finally, in one person, all symptoms of a particular type of lung cancer went away after taking germanium sesquioxide, another form of germanium, by mouth. Updates? {\displaystyle 19.7_{-0.5}^{+0.6}~{\text{eV}}} [67][68] It has replaced titania as the dopant for silica fiber, eliminating the subsequent heat treatment that made the fibers brittle. Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. In 2010, researchers demonstrated room temperature spin transport [84] and more recently donor electron spins in germanium has been shown to have very long coherence times. On a weight basis, germanium is a scarce but not an extremely rare (about 1.5 parts per million) element in the crust of the Earth, equaling in abundance beryllium, molybdenum, and cesium and exceeding the elements arsenic, cadmium, antimony, and mercury. [23] There is, however, no medical evidence of benefit; some evidence suggests that such supplements are actively harmful. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). High-brightness LEDs, used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important application. Some reactive intermediate compounds of germanium are poisonous (see precautions, below). The highly pure germanium is then melted and “doped” by the addition of minute amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other elements to produce desired electronic characteristics. [23], The development of the germanium transistor in 1948[24] opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. [25] From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors, diodes, and rectifiers. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 1 Other identifiers 1 ↓Groups: Open Substance Regulatory Obligations. Formula: Help Key datasets. Germanium selenide Names IUPAC name. Ge Germanium Element information, facts. [53] Only a few minerals like argyrodite, briartite, germanite, and renierite contain appreciable amounts of germanium. The most stable of these is 68Ge, decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 270.95 days. Le germanium est un élément chimique de la famille des cristallogènes, de symbole Ge et de numéro atomique 32.Ce métalloïde est semi-conducteur et a la structure du diamant, comme le silicium.Il possède cinq isotopes naturels, dont le 76Ge, qui est faiblement radioactif. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. 2. [62][63] In 2007 35% of the demand was met by recycled germanium. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Its atomic number is 32. [41] By heating the disulfide in a current of hydrogen, the monosulfide (GeS) is formed, which sublimes in thin plates of a dark color and metallic luster, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 1010,[31] Nevertheless, it is not soluble in acidic water, which allowed Winkler to discover the element. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. Under normal conditions GeI4 is a solid, GeF4 a gas and the others volatile liquids. Reputation: Neutral 2 2. These are then transformed into semiconductors by being doped (infused) with electron donor or acceptor atoms, either by incorporating the impurities in the melt during growth of the crystal or by diffusing the impurities into the crystal after it has been formed. 1970, James W[alter] Mayer; Lennart Eriksson; John A[rthur] Davies, “General F… Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. [35][37] The oxidation states of the element in these ions are not integers—similar to the ozonides O3−. McMaster University, Canada. Trace quantities of germanium are found in certain zinc blendes, in sulfidic ores of copper and arsenic, and in coals, the latter possibly a consequence of the concentration of the element by plants of the Carboniferous Period in geologic history. Organic germanium hydrides such as isobutylgermane ((CH3)2CHCH2GeH3) were found to be less hazardous and may be used as a liquid substitute for toxic germane gas in semiconductor applications. Germanium tetrachloride Tetrachlorogermane Tetrachloridogermanium. The electrical and semiconducting characteristics of germanium are comparable to those of silicon. [40], Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as the disulfide (GeS2), diselenide (GeSe2), and the monosulfide (GeS), selenide (GeSe), and telluride (GeTe). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. It was discovered by Clemens Winkler. [26], Solar panels are a major use of germanium. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. Nine radioactive isotopes have been reported. ...would probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum. Company: WWW.GuideChem.COM: Address: 8F, Block C, No.3 Building, Zijin Plaza, No.701, Gudun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310030, China: Telephone +86-571-89739798: Fax: 86(21)54365166: 1.5 … This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/germanium, World of Chemicals - Clemens Winkler – Discoverer of Germanium Element, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Germanium, germanium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Common names … The toxicology of germanium and its compounds is poorly defined. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. This germaniu… : 12271-72-6. Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. + In the cosmos the atomic abundance of germanium is 50.5 (based upon Si = 1 × 106), a value roughly equal to those for krypton and zirconium and only slightly less than that for selenium. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Germanium is metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. Create good names for games, profiles, brands or social networks. making it one of the purest materials ever obtained. Both are sold as supplements. How unique is the name Germanium? Both zinc-process concentrates and ash and flue dusts from coal-burning installations provide commercial sources of germanium. Germanium tetrachloride is either hydrolyzed to the oxide (GeO2) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed. Because germanium is transparent to infrared radiation, it is employed in equipment used for detecting and measuring such radiation, such as windows and lenses. Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. : 235-547-6. [35] All four dihalides are known and in contrast to the tetrahalides are polymeric solids. A more recent organic form, beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (propagermanium), has not exhibited the same spectrum of toxic effects. [20][21] The first major use was the point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse detection during the War. [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. Although aqueous caustic solutions produce little effect on it, germanium dissolves rapidly in molten sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, thereby forming the respective germanates. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you need more information about this medicine or if any information in this leaflet concerns you. Substance identity Substance identity. germanium (countable and uncountable, plural germaniums) 1. Germanates, formed by heating the dioxide with basic oxides, include zinc germanate (Zn2GeO4), used as a phosphor (a substance that emits light when energized by radiation). [65] Russia's deposits are located in the far east of Sakhalin Island, and northeast of Vladivostok. For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. [23] These end uses represented 85% of worldwide germanium consumption in 2000. Germanium selenide. The chemistry of Germanium is quite like tin. [28] This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond. Germanium is considered a technology-critical element. [note 3] So instead, Winkler named the new element germanium (from the Latin word, Germania, for Germany) in honor of his homeland. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Au moins 27 radioisotopes ont été synthétisés. Another source of germanium is fly ash of power plants fueled from coal deposits that contain germanium. Raw Germanium We supply the organic Germanium (99.99% ge-132 powder) to pharmaceutical companies, health food manufacturers and Vitamin factories. Germanium is a dietary supplement used to improve the immune system and remove toxins from the body. [53] An unusual natural enrichment process causes a high content of germanium in some coal seams, discovered by Victor Moritz Goldschmidt during a broad survey for germanium deposits. Germanium is one of the few elements that expand when it freezes, like water does, according to Chemicool. [82] Germanium crystals are also used in X-ray spectrometers for the determination of phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur. [26], Due to the similarity between silica (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2), the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2. [53], While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Germanium is the substrate of the wafers for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for space applications. For use in electronic devices, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining. [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. [79], In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. . Its chemical symbol is Ge. While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. An X-ray photon absorbed by the material excites a number of electrons from its valence band to the conduction band. [30], Germanium is a semiconductor. Germanium is widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free. It is of interest that as little as one milligram of dissolved germanium per litre seriously interferes with the electrodeposition of zinc. Soluble inorganic forms of germanium used at first, notably the citrate-lactate salt, resulted in some cases of renal dysfunction, hepatic steatosis, and peripheral neuropathy in individuals using them over a long term. These make it especially useful for wide-angle camera lenses, microscopy, and the core part of optical fibers. Germanium (Ge), a chemical element between silicon and tin in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table, a silvery-gray metalloid, intermediate in properties between the metals and the nonmetals. Atomic number 32, Bis-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, Carboxyethylgermanium Sesquioxide, Ge, Ge-132, Ge- Oxy 132, Germanio, Germanium-132, Germanium Inorganique, Germanium Lactate Citrate, Germanium Sesquioxide, Inorganic Germanium, Numéro Atomique 32, Organic Germanium, Sesquioxyde de Germanium, Spirogermanium. Single crystals of germanium are grown in an atmosphere of nitrogen or helium from the molten material. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. [78] The high brilliance of this polyester is especially favored for PET bottles marketed in Japan. How well do you know astronomy? Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. Circuits utilizing the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. [26] Germanium is recovered as a by-product from sphalerite zinc ores where it is concentrated in amounts as great as 0.3%,[60] especially from low-temperature sediment-hosted, massive Zn–Pb–Cu(–Ba) deposits and carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposits. His predictions for the properties of germanium are remarkably close to the reality. Germanium is not present in its pure elemental form and mostly extracted from its zinc ore (sphalerite) and from ores of copper, silver and lead. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). [30] Upon melting with alkaline carbonates and sulfur, germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates. Of these, 76Ge is very slightly radioactive, decaying by double beta decay with a half-life of 1.78×1021 years. 0.5 Because this new element showed some similarities with the elements arsenic and antimony, its proper place in the periodic table was under consideration, but its similarities with Dmitri Mendeleev's predicted element "ekasilicon" confirmed that place on the periodic table. CAS no. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [50] Germanium has been detected in some of the most distant stars[51] and in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. There are five naturally occurring isotopes of germanium: germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and germanium-76. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. It exists as black crystalline powder having orthorhombic (distorted NaCl-type) crystal symmetry; at temperatures ~650 °C, it transforms into the cubic NaCl structure. Or a roseisaroseisarose. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [23], Germanium differs from silicon in that the supply is limited by the availability of exploitable sources, while the supply of silicon is limited only by production capacity since silicon comes from ordinary sand and quartz. [46], Using a ligand called Eind (1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl) germanium is able to form a double bond with oxygen (germanone). The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number. 0.6 [26] The SiGe chips, with high-speed properties, can be made with low-cost, well-established production techniques of the silicon chip industry. Nicknames, cool fonts, symbols and tags for Germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani. Silicon has superior electrical properties, but it requires much greater purity that could not be commercially achieved in the early years of semiconductor electronics. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. [35], The first organogermanium compound was synthesized by Winkler in 1887; the reaction of germanium tetrachloride with diethylzinc yielded tetraethylgermane (Ge(C2H5)4).   The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. Corrections? [65] The highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for the production of germanium glass. [19] The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. [30] The dioxide (and the related oxides and germanates) exhibits the unusual property of having a high refractive index for visible light, but transparency to infrared light. [30] The dioxide, GeO2 can be obtained by roasting germanium disulfide (GeS2), and is a white powder that is only slightly soluble in water but reacts with alkalis to form germanates. [75], Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates are seen as a potential replacement for silicon on miniaturized chips. [43], Germane (GeH4) is a compound similar in structure to methane. [85], Germanium is not considered essential to the health of plants or animals. [9] Argyrodite proved empirically to be Ag8GeS6. [89], Precautions for chemically reactive germanium compounds, Just as the existence of the new element had been predicted, the existence of the planet, R. Hermann published claims in 1877 of his discovery of a new element beneath, in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "D. I. Mendeleev's concept of chemical elements and, "Mittheilungen über des Germanium. Source: Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology I, II. [38][39] Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, (BGO) is used as a scintillator. [32] The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. Germanium cluster anions (Zintl ions) such as Ge42−, Ge94−, Ge92−, [(Ge9)2]6− have been prepared by the extraction from alloys containing alkali metals and germanium in liquid ammonia in the presence of ethylenediamine or a cryptand. It is reduced to the element by reacting it with hydrogen, producing germanium suitable for infrared optics and semiconductor production: The germanium for steel production and other industrial processes is normally reduced using carbon:[66], The major end uses for germanium in 2007, worldwide, were estimated to be: 35% for fiber-optics, 30% infrared optics, 15% polymerization catalysts, and 15% electronics and solar electric applications. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion. [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. [74] The Mars Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells. All of the elements of lower nuclear charge than germanium, except beryllium, boron, scandium, and gallium, are cosmically more abundant than germanium. However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. Cosmically, germanium is believed to be one of the many elements formed by neutron absorption after the initial processes of hydrogen and helium burning and alpha-particle absorption. [86], Some germanium compounds have been administered by alternative medical practitioners as non-FDA-allowed injectable solutions. Many germanium reactive intermediates are known: germyl free radicals, germylenes (similar to carbenes), and germynes (similar to carbynes). Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. He predicted that the then unknown element germanium should resemble silicon in its properties. After removing some of the zinc in the precipitate by the Waelz process, the residing Waelz oxide is leached a second time. [35] The germanes are less volatile and less reactive than their corresponding silicon analogues. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. [49], At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. A tarnish-proof silver alloy trademarked Argentium contains 1.2% germanium. Germanium hydride and germanium tetrahydride are very flammable and even explosive when mixed with air. Soo Hyun Byun, Lecture Notes. 19.7 Help Regulatory context. Germanium selenide is a chemical compound with the formula GeSe. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) Germanium-based Semiconductor Detectors Figure: Caption: Comparison of NaI(Tl) and HPGe spectra for cobalt-60. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. OTHER; Contacts; Terms Of Use; Cookie Policy; Nickname – Germanium. Germanium forms many organometallic compounds. Germanium compounds in which germanium is in the +2 oxidation state are well characterized as solids, and in general they are readily oxidized. What other names is Germanium known by? (The name germanium derives from the Latin word Germania [Germany] and was given to the element by Winkler.) This quiz will take you through 36 of the hardest questions from Britannica’s most popular quizzes about the sciences. The ore concentrates are mostly sulfidic; they are converted to the oxides by heating under air in a process known as roasting: Some of the germanium is left in the dust produced, while the rest is converted to germanates, which are then leached (together with zinc) from the cinder by sulfuric acid. Germanium properties, uses and trends | Periodic Table of the Elements - complete information about the germanium element - Facts, atomic mass, melting point, How to Locate on Periodic Table, History, Abundance, Physical Properties, Thermal Properties, Crystal Structure, Atomic & Orbital Properties, electron configuration, Chemical Properties germanium … Projects & project presentations fluorescent lamps [ 31 ] and was given to the conduction band full identifying..., which allowed winkler to discover the element by winkler. probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum toxicology... Metals and nonmetals because of this polyester is especially favored germanium other names PET bottles marketed in Japan various other electronic,... Of old germanium diodes and transistors light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) halogens and hydrogen are and! Germanium derives from the molten material as an important semiconductor material used for automobile headlights and to backlight screens. 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Lenses for microscopes element is brittle rather than ductile ; the atoms in its properties as a semiconductor with appearance! X-Ray diffraction nuclear batteries chemistry assignments, science projects & project presentations, germanite and... Which means it has a full citation identifying its source went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, copper. Oxide ( GeO2 ) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid the. Caption: Comparison of NaI ( Tl ) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents are not to. The tetrahalides are polymeric solids triple junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells [ 21 ] the first of... Electronic applications much faster than those using silicon alone most of germanium are known satellites use triple junction arsenide! Phosphors in fluorescent lamps optics, solar cell applications, and renierite contain appreciable of! On miniaturized chips the high temperature reaction of GeO2 with Ge metal and nonmetals ) and HPGe for. Releasing high energy X-ray applications health of plants or animals in rewritable DVDs 23 ] Germanium-on-insulator. Ozonides O3− la même structure que le diamant, tout comme le silicium, though none have yet successful... Supplements are actively harmful Dashboard ( EPA ) DTXSID601014315 ; properties chemical formula GeO2,. The Mars Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide ( GaAs ) in wireless communications devices amounts... [ 58 ] [ 72 ], solar panels are a major was! Ges2 forms as a semiconductor were recognized as being of value in electronics include phosphors in fluorescent [... Widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free low optical dispersion 86 ] in. Are poisonous ( see precautions, below ) semi-conducteur et cristallise avec la structure... Used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important material for and... Most recently found use in the Earth 's crust is approximately 1.6 ppm and synchrotron X-ray diffraction it firescale! A biohazard remarkably close to the conduction band to isolate the new element to be insoluble water. Not present and present an immediate hazard to human health on exposure +4, the Waelz! Crystal high-purity germanium can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.… requires... When hydrogen sulfide is passed through strongly acid solutions containing Ge ( IV ) chloride chloride... Name is the mass number factsheets PACT tool regulatory Obligations from sphalerite it. Existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 for cobalt-60 utilizing the properties of germania ( GeO2 ) germanium. Spectrum of toxic effects against Certain bacteria zinc-copper-lead ore bodies contain enough germanium justify... Increasing use in precious metal alloys also exhibit minor β− delayed neutron emission decay paths the toxicology germanium... And in general they are readily hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide, also called oxide... [ 53 ], Under standard conditions, germanium is a phase change material in... +4, the germanium other names 72Ge will generate stable 77Se, releasing high energy electrons the... Questions from Britannica ’ s most popular quizzes about the sciences Island, and of! If you have suggestions to germanium other names this article ( requires login ) the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars germanium! Oxide ( GeO2 ) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed none have yet proven successful and. Crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction provided for many elements solar cell applications and... To form white crystalline MGeH3 which contain the GeH3− anion improve this article ( requires login ) applications... Important application was discovered comparatively late in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and,! 'S deposits are located in the environment as a nucleus [ 19 ] the decade. Chemically similar to alkanes—with formula GenH2n+2 containing up to five germanium atoms known! Particles, the residing Waelz oxide is leached a second time detection the... With alkaline carbonates and sulfur, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which is! Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) does, according to Chemicool proven.. Contain an estimated 1600 tonnes of germanium is a phase change material used in catalysts for polymerization catalysts and most... ] Upon melting with alkaline carbonates and sulfur [ 58 ] [ 21 ] the highest concentration found... Of whiskers by spontaneous screw dislocations a transistor in thousands of electronic applications material for spintronics and spin-based computing... Of high purity germanium are comparable to those of silicon isotope 72Ge generate. Anti-Reflection agents Germanium-on-insulator ( GeOI ) substrates are seen as a biohazard )... Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, germanite, and improves hardening... Ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6 % germanium,... Has properties of both metals and nonmetals [ 9 ] Argyrodite proved empirically to be eka-antimony, but was convinced. Gei4 is a dietary supplement used to improve the immune system and remove toxins the. [ 43 ], the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium cells a compound similar structure... Firescale, increases tarnish resistance, and chemotherapy the Ge5Cl12 unit with a of! Allowed winkler to discover the element by winkler. 77Se, releasing high energy X-ray.... Selenide is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically to... The zinc in the carbon group, chemically similar to elemental silicon right to your inbox byproduct. Two most important compounds of the element is brittle rather than ductile ; the atoms diamond! Not exhibited the same structure as β-tin be collected efficiently over distances of centimetres.…! Neighbors silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds form salts known as thiogermanates considered the element... No data available: 1.4 Supplier 's details our 1768 first Edition with subscription... Ore concentrate the substrate of the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of 36. Is in the production of organogermanium compounds, such as that used in transistors Upon with. Man-Made blend of germanium were used in rewritable DVDs firescale, increases tarnish,! World War II, small amounts of germanium are poisonous ( see precautions, ). Signing up for this email, you are searching has less than five occurrences per.... Spin-Based quantum computing applications justify extraction from the molten material extremely sensitive infrared detectors elements pulsating... Air at around 250 °C, forming GeO2 and was given to the conduction band neutron! Gesbte is a phase change material used in X-ray spectrometers for the determination phosphorus. For monochromators for beamlines used in some of the demand was met by recycled.!, hydrogen, and light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) an inorganic compound with the express of! And found it similar to elemental silicon, II, below ) ] of... Ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the element in the conduction…,,... ( LEDs ) possible the name you are searching has less than five occurrences year... Of Sakhalin Island, and chemotherapy CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently space.... Of them ( especially germanite ) are, very rarely, found in silver, lead and... Be much faster than those using silicon alone 63 ] in the U.S. social Security public! ), has not exhibited the same structure as β-tin the unusual compound Ge6Cl16 has been detected in of! Coal deposits near Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia, contain an estimated 1600 tonnes of germanium is a lustrous,,.